Photographing Museological Practices | Research & Literature…

Photomedia Readings…

Museological Practices & Immersion…

Gunning, T. (1989) ‘The Cinema of Attractions: Early Film, Its Spectators and the Avant-Garde’, Wide Angle. Vol 8 (2/3).

“Its unique power was a “matter making images seen.”[1]

  • Cinema followed a pattern of enthusiasm for its medium and possibilities. à Emphasis placed on potential and the future.
  • Cinema and film are traditionally regarded as a narrative based medium of story-telling (Narrative construction and editing.)
  • Early cinema was not dominated by narrative, it evolved and developed overtime; emphasis was originally placed on actuality the attraction.[2]

“In other words, I believe that the relation to the spectator set up by the films of both Lumiere and Melies (and many other filmmakers before 1906) had a common basis, and one that differs from the primary spectator relations set up by narrative film after 1906.”

“In fact the cinema of attraction does not disappear with the dominance of narrative, but rather goes underground, both into certain avant-garde practices and as a component of narrative films, more evident in some genres (e.g., the musical) than in others.”

  • Cinema is based on quality and its ability to demonstrate and show something. This is contrasted on narrative cinema which often enters realms of voyeurism. (Exhibitionist cinema)

“the cinema of attractions construct with its spectator: the recurring look at the camera by actors. This action which is later perceived as spoiling the realistic illusion of the cinema, is here undertaken with brio, establishing contact with the audience.”

“…perhaps the dominant non-actuality film genre before 1906, is itself a series of displays, of magical attractions, rather than primitive sketch of narrative continuity.” à “The story simply provides a frame upon which to string a demonstration of the magical possibilities of the cinema.” :65

[1] Femand Leger, “A Critical Essay of the Plastic Qualities of Abe Gance’s Film The Wheel” in Functions of a Painting, ed, and intro. Edward and Fry, trans. Alexandra-Anderson (New York: Viking Press, 1973), 21.

[2] Robert C. Allen, Vaudeville and Film: 1895-1915, A Study in Media Interaction (New York: Arno Press, 1980), !59-212-213.

“The relation between the film and the emergence of the great amusement parks, such as Coney Island, at the turn of the century provides rich ground for rethinking the roots of early cinema.” :65

  • Expression and demonstration of magic and trickery were a fundamental element of early cinema. attraction was used as a tool to immerse the viewer within the films. à Close-ups and enlargement was used as a technique of attraction rather than a conveyor of the narrative.

“The enlargement is not a device expressive of narrative tension; it is in itself an attraction and point of the film.” [See Footnote 8 of original text]

“An attraction aggressively subjected the spectator to “sensual or psychological impact.” According to Eisenstein, theatre should consist of a montage of such attractions, creating a relation to the spectator entirely different from his absorption in “Illusory imitativeness.” [1]

“Then as now, the “attraction” was a term of the fairground, and for Eisenstein and his friend Yuketvich it primarily represented their favourite fairground attraction, the roller coaster, or as it was known then in Russia, the American Mountains.” [2]

“…offering a new sort of stimulus for an audience not acculturated to the traditional arts.” :66

  • The entertainment industry evolved and developed growing to accept middle-class cultures à Linked to discourses of liberation and freedom.

“…its freedom from the creation of a diegesis, its accent on direct stimulation.” :66

“…its creation of the new spectator at the variety theatre feels directly addressed by the spectacle and joins in, singing along, heckling the comedians.” :66

  • Cinematic format morphed and changed to incorporate more variety by combining traditional and modern techniques and genres.

“…trick films sandwiched in with farces, actualities, “illustrated songs”, and, quite frequently, cheap vaudeville acts. It was precisely this non-narrative variety that placed this form of entertainment under attack by reform groups in the early teens.” :67

  • There was substantial concentration on artificial stimulation that was often featured in popular culture and arts to…

    “…inject into the theatre, organising popular energy fo radical purpose.” :67

“The period from 1907 to about 1913 represents the true narrativization of the cinema, culminating in the appearance of feature films which radically revised the variety format.”:67

  • The camera became a device for magic and trickery, an expression of playful and cinematic attraction in an attempt the engage and stimulate viewers that altered traditional ideology surrounding audience theory reflecting viewers as passive and unquestioning viewers to a more participatory standpoint.
  • Causality + Linearity = Narrative [Linked to basic continuity editing] à The spectacle unfolds and builds tension amongst audience members
  • Slapstick…

“Did a balancing act between the pure spectacle of gag and the development of narrative.”[3] :67

[1] Eisenstien, “Montage of Attractions,” trans. Daniel Gerould, in The Drama Review, 18, 1, (March 1974), 78-79.

[2] Yon Bama, Eisenstein (Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press, 1973), 59.

[3] Paper delivered at the FIAF Conference on Slapstick, May 1985, New York City.

Surrealism, ‘The Uncanny’, ‘Estrangement’ & Still life…

Bate, D. (2004) Photography and Surrealism: Sexuality, Colonialism and Social Dissent. [Online] London: I.B. Tauris [Accessed 15 March 2017]

“Within the walls of such binary oppositions surrealism can be reduced (safely) to a wish to escape from ‘reality’ into fantasy and the irrational.” (2004:6)

“…surrealism as a discursive formation was far from ‘anti-rational’.” (2004:7)

Surrealist ties with escapism and the sub-conscious and unconscious – Tied with Freudian psychology.

“More specifically, surrealism had two attitudes to the structures of psychical reality and material reality.” (2004:8)

“Here surrealism was a close to a conventional notion of ‘consciousness raising’ as in Marxist practice, the attempt to make people materially aware of their unconscious values,  beliefs and ideology.” (2004:8)

“In surrealism, automatic writing is the means to attempt a notion of psychic expression within control by conscious thought or reason. Thus the automatic image is that which is conjured up as the psychical thought, the ‘mental image'” (2004:54)

***** Freud, Sigmund. (2003) The Uncanny. [Online] Revised ed. London: Penguin Books. [Accessed 15 March 2017]

“One such is the ‘uncanny’. There is no doubt that this belongs to the realm of the frightening, of what evokes fear and dread.” (2003:123)

“…which on the whole prefer to concern themselves with our feelings for the beautiful, the grandiose and the attractive – that is to say, with feelings of a positive kind, their determinants and the objects that arouse them – rather than with their opposites, feelings of repulsion and distress.” (2003:123)

“…the semantic content that has been accrued to the German word unheimlich [of which the nearest semantic equivalents in English are ‘uncanny’ and ‘eerie’, but which etymologically corresponds to ‘unhomely’]..” (2003:124)

Also discusses ties with animals and odd familiarities…

“…'[of animals: tame, associating famillarity with humans’ antonym: wild’]…” (2003:126)

“This reminds us that this word heimlich is not unambiguous, but belongs to two sets of idea, which are not mutually contradictory, but very different from each other – relating to what is familiar and uncomfortable, the other to what is concealed or kept hidden.” (2003:132)

“…E. Jentsch singles out, as an excellent case, ‘doubt as to whether an apparently animate object really is alive and, conversely, whether a lifeless object might not perhaps be animate’. In this connection he refers to the impressions made on us by waxwork figures, ingeniously constructed dolls and automata.” (2003:135) *** YES! This is exactly what I had experienced!***

“…because he goes on to remind us of one writer who was more successful than an other at creating uncanny effects. ‘One of the surest devices for producing slighting uncanny effects through story-telling’, writes Jentsch, ‘is to leave the reader wondering whether a particular figure is a real person or an automaton, and to do so in such a way that his attention is not focused directly on uncertainty, lest he should be prompted to examine and settle the matter at once, for this way, as we have said, the special emotional effect can easily be dissipated. E. T. A. Hoffman often employed this psychological manoeuvre with success in his imaginative writings.’…” (2003: 135)

“We recall that children, in their early games, make no sharp distinction between the animate and the inanimate, and that they are especially fond of treating their dolls as if they were alive.” (2003: 141)

“One must content oneself with selecting the most prominent of those motifs that produce an uncanny effect and see whether they too can reasonably be traced back to infantile sources. They involve the idea of the ‘double’ (the Doppelgänger), in all its nuances and manifestations – that is to say, the appearance of persons who have to be regarded as identical because they look alike. This relationship is intensified by the spontaneous transmission of mental processes from one of these persons to the other – what we would call telepathy – so that the one becomes co-owner of the other’s knowledge, to imbue the old idea of the double with a new content and attribute a number of features to it – all above, those which is in the light of self-criticism, seem to belong to the old, superannuated narcissism of primitive times.” (2003: 143)

“Its uncanny quality can surely derive only from the fact that the double is a creation that belongs to a primitive phase in our mental development, a phase that we have surmounted, in which it admittedly had a more benign significance. The double has become an object of terror, just as the gods become demons after the collapse of their cult…” (2003: 143)

**** Peres, R. (2013) The Focal Encyclopaedia of Photography. [Online] 4th ed. Burlington: Focal Press. [Accessed 15 March 2017]

“A still life is an arrangement of inanimate (or mostly inanimate) elements that express pictorial, narrative, or metaphorical content.” (2013: 324-325)

“The most basic challenge of the still-life photographer is to create a composition of objects that are defined by light.” (2013: 325)  ***Link to Hiroshi Sugimoto’s methodological and photographic approaches ***

“These opulent paintings contain lavish tableau arrangments of flowers, fruits, material treasures, and artefacts. The objects seem to be bathed in light that reveals texture, volume, space, and reality.” (2013: 325) ***Similar to concerns of preservation, preservation and display to that of museums?***

“The rudiments of a still-life photograph begin with the arrangement of light, shadow, form and space. Natural or artificial light is used to define the subjects texture surface, shape or form. Directional sidelight is used to convey textual quality while emphasising the line and shape inherent in the subject.” (2013: 325) ***Exactly what I am doing in my photographic methodology!***

“The large image size and the camera;s movements that control perspective and depth of field allow exact rendering of shape and fine detail. Although still-life photographs have been created with every type and format of camera, the highest resolution and image quality are desirable.” (2013: 325)

“Many still-life compositions are visual representations of objects that have been isolated from their environment. In this method, the photographer is concerned with replicating the subject in its truest form.” (2013: 325) ***Exactly what I am doing in my photographic methodology!***

“By alluding to an abstract idea or an emotion instead of the object’s physical characteristics, the photographer transforms the literal quality of the object through symbolic associations.” (2013: 325)  ***What does this speak to physical characteristics and emotional recognition in relation to my waxwork images?***

Lury, C. (1997) Prosthetic Culture: Photography, Memory and Identity (1st ed.) London: Routledge

“In surrealist photography, she argues, an internal convulsion of reality, an inter-leaving of nature and culture, was conveyed through the fracturing of space.” (1997: 162)

“…the manipulation of the temporality of the camera’s eye was tied to the recognition of the mobility of being, to movement in the world.” (1997: 162)

Cites Rosalind Krauss (1986a) “…’If we are to generalise the aesthetic of surrealism, the concept of convulsive beauty is at the core of its aesthetic, a concept that reduces to an experience of reality transformed into representation. Surreality is, we could say, nature convulsed into a kind of writing. This special access that photography, as a medium, has to this experience is photography’s privileged connections to the real. The manipulations then available to photography – what we have been calling doubling and spacing as well as a technique of representational reduplication – structure en abyme – appear to document these convulsions. The photographs are not interpretations of reality. …Instead, they are presentations of that very reality as configured or coded or written.'” (1997: 102)

“…in surrealism, argues Krauss, the capacity of the photograph to depict a curious invasion of the body by space is given aesthetic form. This is exemplified by the use of techniques for deliberate disintegration rather than the creation of form, what she calls the condition informé. ” (1997: 102)

* Lomas, D. (2000) The Haunted Self: Surrealism, Psychonalysis Subjectivity (1st ed.) London: Yale University Press

“Surrealist images are apt to provoke a feeling of unease or disquiet. Indeed, the state of mind induced in the beholder when the familiar world is suddenly revealed in all its strangeness has become virtually synonymous in everyday speech with the surreal.” (2000: 95)

“A displacement or an estrangement (dépaysement) that seems at first to bear only upon the world of objects also affects us and the relation that we maintain with ourselves. We become, as it were, strangers to ourselves.” (2000:95)

“The uncanny pertains to the frightening, to that which arouses dread or horror, though plainly not all that we find frightening is also uncanny.” (2000:95)

“Freud goes on to resolve this paradoxical state of affairs by invoking the theory of repression: ‘the uncanny is in reality nothing new or alien, but something which is familiar and old-established in the mind which has become alienated from it only through the process of repression'[7].” (2000:95)

“The experience of the uncanny correspond, therefore, to an unanticipated return of the repressed…” (2000: 96)

“…contrives an uncanny juxtaposition of a classical figure with a whimsically transgressive surrealist assemblage. What could be more homely, more familiar, than the body we inhabit? But in surrealist imagery that body is habitually rendered stranger: robotic, doubled, dismembered, deprived of sight – one’s own body (corps propre) become the uncanny place, a foreign territory…” (2000: 130)

“Surrealism aims to exacerbate a crisis of identity which, as Jung rightly discerned, the foremost artist of the era registers in his art: under the aegis of the marvellous, it seeks to generalise the state of self-estrangement depicted by Picasso. Again and again, one can see surrealism privilege those moments of subjective destructuration where the self appears haunted by another.” (2000: 130)

*** Foster, H. (1993) Compulsive Beauty (1st ed.) London: MIT Press

“I believe this concept to be the uncanny, that is to say, a concern with events in which repressed material returns in ways that disrupt unitary identity, aesthetic norms, and social order. In my argument, the surrealists are not only drawn to the return of the repressed but also seek to redirect this return to critical ends.” :xvii

“This basis of surrealist connections between symbols, beauty and hysteria, critical interpretations and paranoid projections.” :xviii

“As is well-known, the uncanny for Freud involves the return of a familiar phenomenon (image or object, person or event) made strange by repression. This return of the repressed renders the subject anxious and the phenomenon ambiguous, and this anxious ambiguity produces the primary effects of the uncanny: (1) an indistinction between the real and the imagined, which is the basic aim of surrealism as defined in both manifestos of Breton; (2) a confusion between the animate and the inanimate, as exemplified in the surrealist repertoire; and (3) a usurpation of the referent by the sign or of physical reality by psychic reality, and here again the surreal is often experienced, especially by Breton and Dali, as an eclipse of the referential by the symbolic; or as an enthrallment of a subject to a sign or a symptom, and its effect is often that of the uncanny: anxiety.” :7

“Freud traces the estrangement of the familiar that is essential to the uncanny in the very etymology of German term: unheimlich (uncanny) derives from heimlich (homelike), to which several senses of the world return.” :7

“For this category of the veiled-erotic Breton offers these images: a limestone deposit shaped like an egg; a quartz wall formed like a sculpted mantle; a rubber object and a mandrake root that resemble statuettes…” [Automatist creation] :23

“All are instances of natural mimicry, which relates them to other phenomena prized by surrealists…” :23

“…the veiled-erotic is uncanny primarily in its in/animation, for this suggests the priority of death, the primordial condition to which life is recalled” :25

Does this link to the use and degradation of objects?

“The fixed explosive, the second category of convulsive beauty, is uncanny primarily in its im/mobility, for this suggests the authority of death, the dominant conservatism of the drives.” :25

“…the fixed-explosive involves an “expiration of motion” (AF 10), and Breton provides two examples. The first is only described: a “photograph of a speeding locomotive abandoned for years to the delirium of a virgin forest” (AF 10). The second is only illustrated: a Man Ray photograph of a tango dancer caught, body and dress ablur, in midtwirl. In the first image, which deepens the ambiguous role of nature in convulsive beauty, an old train engine lies engulfed in a bed of vines. Nature here is vital yet inertial: it grows but only, in the guise of death, to devour the progress of the train, or the progress that it once emblemised.” :25″

Performance & Narrative…

Mette, T.C. (2016) Walking in the Museum – Performing the Museum. [Online] The Senses and Society. Volume 11 (2) 136-157 [Accessed 15 March 2017]

“The paradigmatic shift in museum practice today “directs our attention away from the museum as a collection of objects to the museum as a site of social and corporeal practices.” (Leahy 2012, 3).” (2016: 3)

“The spatial design of the exhibition makes visible the fact that it is the visitors who provide the connection between the elements. It is the relationship between the assembled elements that constructs their meanings, so to speak.” (2016: 7)

“…the fragmented and sequential structure of the exhibition site makes the visitors embark on a strenuous journey through the entire length of the museum…” (2016:11)

Geczy, A. (2017) The Artificial body in fashion and art: marionettes, models and mannequins. [Online] London: Bloomsbury Academic. [Accessed 15 March 2017]

“In the eighteenth century, Descartes’s metaphor of the body and the machine was now a reality or at least a concrete alias. There had been examples of automata well before but in the eighteenth century, they became more than eccentricities by becoming powerful mechanisms by which to understand and contemplate the nature of life, physiology and creativity. Since the mechanical body was no longer a metaphor, but a perceived reality, it brought questions of free will and consciousness into sharper relief, and also enlivened speculation…” (2017: 31)

“A good actor must dim his expression, in essence, mute his humanity, in order to divulge a more compelling humanity on stage.” (2017: 31)

Cites Marquard Smith… “The human’s functioning, previously God-given, later comprehended in terms of thermal and fluid dynamics, and operating through the matter by which it is constituted, becomes a motion machine where the physiology of humours is replaced by physiology of nerves, where the brain is a motor that drives a complex organism with a circulatory system a nervous system circulating energy (The entry for nerve in Diderot’s Encycopédie, published between 1751 and 1772, claims that the “essence” conveyed around the body is referred to by some as “animal spirit”.).” (2017:31-32)

** Smith, M. (2014) Why are dolls so creepy?  Available from: [Accessed 17th March 2017]

“There is something slightly distressing about hearing this sound, a facsimile of a real voice , an acoustic simulation of human life emanating from this inanimate, artificial figure. It feels disembodied. It feels ventriloquised. The doll sounds possessed, haunted, like there is a ghost in the machine.”

“…from the 19th Century onwards this dynamic changed, and mannequins no longer functioned simply as substitutes for human beings but rather they became icons and muses for artists.”

“…gives it its uncanniness, is that it deals with the arousing of an early childhood fear: our anxiety over our eyes; for in the story it is the Sandman who tears out children’s eyes. This threat of going blind is often, for Freud at least, a substitute for the dread of being (metaphorically) castrated; the eye is a substitute or stand-in for the male organ.”

“The uncanny feels and works the way it does because of the nature of fetishes. The fetish comes to be both a stand-in for something else (for instance the hair fetishist or tricophile might think of a person’s hair as a stand-in for that person) and a thing in and of itself (they might experience sexual arousal from stroking the hair per se). Thus the fetish – the doll, the mannequin, the body part, etc. – functions as a stand-in and simultaneously as a thing that appears to have a life of its own and be capable of independent activity.” ***This also links with last semester’s project on critiqing capitalist commodity fetishism***

“Here, the mannequin is a symptom of our modern fixation on inanimate human forms, and their intrinsic animating potentialities. And as the mannequin makes clearer as a fetish, a thing, a commodity, a possession, and an obsession, so it highlights how its magic might act upon us, how it might become for us an object for adoration and devotion, and even one of desire, lust, and sex.”

“The mannequin, like the uncanny itself, leaves us with feelings of uncertainty. The reason for this is because of a profound quandary: as we idolise things so we objectify ourselves. Taken as a whole, this particular shift from mannequins as tools to mannequins as icon, muse, and fetish identifies a more general shift in the relations between persons and things: persons become things and things become persons.”

“In anthropomorphising things, in making them more human-like, we in turn make ourselves more thing-like. We see it every day in our frenzied consumer culture, evidenced endlessly in our own intimate relations with things, and especially in our encounters with one another.”

Photograpic Temporality…

Barker, J. (2013) Be-hold: Touch, Temporality, and the Cinematic Thumbnail Image. Discourse. [Online] 35 (2) pp. 194- 288. [22 March 2017]

“These images bring into visibility a kind of disruptive, unexpected in-between space that creates an opportunity to think about the ethical relationship between viewer and viewed.” (:194)

“The temporality and tactility of these images also enable an extended look at the nature of the encounter between viewing subject a d viewed object/subject, whom narrative attempts to fix in their respective places but in the thumbnail image remains in a restless tension never quite merging, never fully apart.” (:194)

“As they invite us to think about the relationship between (still) photography and (moving) cinema, these thumbnail images and also ask us to reflect on embodied, tactile relations between the self and other.” (:195)

Vergo, P., ed. (2000) New Museology [Online] Revised ed. London: Reaktion Books

[describing wax models…] “… The use of hair illustrates this especially vividly – eyelashes, eyebrows, on the head and pubic area. If you add to this the pearl necklaces on recumbent female models and the look of ecstasy on the faces of these women, the glass cases and fringed silk linings, it is immediately evident that to describe these models as a deliberate substitute for a bit of nature unavailable for technical reasons does not explain anything” (2000:36)  ***Link to the idea that waxwork mannequins and automata are bound by substitution***

“At one level anatomical wax models simulate nature hence can be deemed a legitimate source of knowledge. But at another they frankly invite the viewer’s fantasies, fantasies which are inevitable sexual in nature.” (2000: 36) *** Yes! links with discourses of authenticity and artifice, and playfully experimenting with this tension within my photographic investigation!.***

“On the one hand we ‘learn’ something from the models, while on the other a whole array of feelings – from admiration to hate – may be elicited. This includes fear, since many wax museums contain a ‘chamber of horrors’.” (2000:36)

“Nowehere is the ambivalent status of exhibited objects more clearly illustrated than in the ‘fetish’. Originally used to describe an ‘inanimate object worshipped by primitive peoples for its supposed inherent magical powers or a being inhabited by a spirit’, by the early twentieth century it was a common term in artistic and in anthropological discourses.” (2000:38) *** Links with last semester’s project on fetishism, Waxwork dolls are also bound by fetishistic discourses of worship and visual consumption! ***

Authenticity & Artifice

Photomedia Reader | Goddard, B. (2016) Photomedia Module Reader 2016 -2017. Bristol: Caron Neutral

Walker Evans, from ‘Now Let Us Praise Famous Men’ (1936)  [Truth Claim of Photography]

“…no natural or necessary connection between a signifier (form) and a signalled (meaning) but also no natural or necessary connection between a sign and the object or aspect of experience it refers to (which Pierce called its referent). (Instead this connection is established by the consensus of a community, or dominant social classes attempt to enforce their language use and meanings on the rest of the community.” (2016-2017: 54)

Symbolic Photographic Truth…

“Symbolic signs correspond to Saussure’s arbitrary sign. Words tend to be symbolic.” (2016-2017: 54)

* Iconic Photographic Truth…

“Indexical signs are related to their referents by causality: a fingerprint is an indexical sign of the finger, car tracks in sand are an indexical sign of a car. Photographs are indexical signs of what they represent because they are caused by the light bouncing off that object leaving traces on photographic paper or film.” (2016-2017: 54)

“So it is the indexical quality of the photo which acts as its guarantee of truthfulness.” (2016-2017: 54)

Cites an extract from Roland Barthes, 1981. Camera Lucidia. Refections of Photography. New York: Hill and Wang, pp. 76-87.

“[…] in photography I can never deny that the thing has been there. There is a superimposition here: of reality and of the past. […] in front of a photograph a consciousness does not necessarily take the past of memory […] but for every photograph existing in the world, the path of certainty: the photograph’s essence is to ratify what it represents […] every photography is a certificate of presence.” (2016-2017: 55)

Cites an extract from William Stott, Documentary Expression and Thirties America., London: Oxford University Press 1973, p14.

“This is how documentary works… It defies comment; it imposes its meaning. It confronts us the audience, with the empirical evidence of such nature as to render dispute impossible and interpretation superfluous. All emphasis is on the evidence; the facts themselves speak… since just the facts matters, it can be transmitted in any plausible medium… The heart of documentary is not form or style but always content.” (2016-2017: 56)

Cites an extract from Abigail Solomen-Godeau,’ Who is Speaking Thus? Some Questions about Documentary Photography in Photography at the Dock. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press 1991 (pp. 169 and 180) 

“…any photographic image expresses an indexical relation to whatever appeared before the lens at the moment of exposure, that the image is a documentary of something.” (2016-2017: 57)

“…one could argue that the conception of photography as a faithful and unmediated transcription of physical appearances (residual traces of the ancient faith notwithstanding) has long since been abandoned.” (2016-2017: 57)

“…while photographers compose and organise their images to yield a certain meaning, rarely is a photograph’s subject neutral or unmarked to begin with. Added to the significance of subject matter on this level of denotation and connotation, and to the significance produced by contextual factors, are those elements supplied through mechanisms internal to the apparatus which also serve to structure meaning. These mechanisms in and of themselves produce certain effects, perhaps the most important on in photography being Barthes “reality effect.”…” (2016-2017: 57)

“This structural congruence of point of view (the eye of the photographer, the eye of the camera and the spectator’s eye) confers on the photograph a quality of pure but delusory, presentness.” (2016-2017: 57)

Cites an extract from Derrick Price ‘Surveyors and Surveyed: Photography Out and About’, p 77 in Wellz, Liz, Photography: A Critical Introduction, Routledge 2000.

“Among these was the notion that we need to trust, not the mechanical properties of the camera, but the personal integrity of the photographer.” (2016-2017: 59)

“The camera would provide not the objective facts that were craved by positivism, but accounts of the world in which ‘truth; was achieved through the power of the image-maker.” (2016-2017: 59)

“The photographer, on this account, is both gifted with a particular acuity of vision and acts as a kind of ‘exemplary sufferer’ on our behalf: an artist who, in his or her person, becomes a guarantor of the accuracy is not certified by the medium itself, but is only validated through the personal qualities and professional practices of the photographer.” (2016-2017: 59)

Cites John Tagg (1987) in ‘Evidence, truth and order: a means of surveillance’ in The Burden of Representation. London: Macmillian.  (p.60 – 102)

“Central to Diamond’s conception of photography as a method os procuring a new kind os knowledge was an idea expressed in The Lancet that: ‘Photography is so essentially the Art of Truth – that it would seem to be the essential means of reproducing all forms and structures of which science seeks for delineation.’ [12]. ” (2016-2017: 71)

“The value of the camera was extolled because of the optical and chemical processes of photography were taken to designate a scientifically exploited but ‘natural’ mechanism producing ‘natural’ images whose truth was guaranteed.” (2016-2017: 71)



***** Most Useful *****

**** Very Useful ****

*** Quite Useful ***

** Useful **

Moderately Useful *




Artsy (2017) Jeff Wall. Available from:  [Accessed 8th March 2017]

American Museum of National History (2017) Hiroshi Sugimoto: Four Decades of Photographic Dioramas. Available from: [Accessed 8th March 2017]

Bate, D. (2004) Photography and Surrealism: Sexuality, Colonialism and Social Dissent. [Online] London: I.B. Tauris [Accessed 15 March 2017]

Emmaus (2017) Emmaus Bristol support Keep Bristol Warm initiative. Available from: [Accessed 25th February 2017]

Foster, H. (1993) Compulsive Beauty (1st ed.) London: MIT Press

Fraenkel Gallery (2017) Dioramas. Available from:  [Accessed 8th March 2017]

fallenheero (2012) Why is film grain used in films? Are there any good implementations or films where it made sense to use film grain? Available from: [Accessed 17 March 2017]

Freud, Sigmund. (2003) The Uncanny. [Online] Revised ed. London: Penguin Books. [Accessed 15 March 2017]

Geczy, A. (2017) The Artificial body in fashion and art: marionettes, models and mannequins. [Online] London: Bloomsbury Academic. [Accessed 15 March 2017]

Gunning, T. (1989) ‘The Cinema of Attractions: Early Film, Its Spectators and the Avant-Garde’, Wide Angle. Vol 8 (2/3).

Hiroshi Sugimoto (2017) Portfolio. Available from: [Accessed 8th March 2017]

Hoban, P. (2012) By inventing her own genre, Cindy Sherman has influenced the way generations of artist think about photography, portraiture, narrative and identity. ARTNEWS [Online] 14th February. Available from: [Accessed 8th March 2017]

IMDB (2017) Saving Private Ryan (1998). Available from: [Accessed 17 March 2017]

Kim, E. (2017) How to Master “The Decisive Moment”. EricKimPhotography [Blog]. 07 January. Available from: [Accessed 8th March 2017]

@KeepBristolWarm (2017) Twitter. [Online] 22 January 2016. Available from:

Keep Bristol Warm #KBW (2017) Facebook. [Online] 11 June 2015. Available from: [Accessed 25th February 2017]

Lury, C. (1997) Prosthetic Culture: Photography, Memory and Identity (1st ed.) London: Routledge

Lomas, D. (2000) The Haunted Self: Surrealism, Psychonalysis Subjectivity (1st ed.) London: Yale University Press

Museum of Modern Art (2017) Cindy Sherman. Available from: [Accessed 8th March 2017]

Mette, T.C. (2016) Walking in the Museum – Performing the Museum. [Online] The Senses and Society. Volume 11 (2) 136-157 [Accessed 15 March 2017]

National Geographic (2017) An Photographer Documents the Evolution of Taxidermy. Available from: [Accessed 8th March 2017]

National History Museum (2017) Wildlife Photographer of the Year 2016. Available from: [Accessed 18th January 2017]

Onions, I (2016) Council cuts mean shorter opening hours for Bristol’s museums. Bristol Post [Online]. 2 September. Available from: [Accessed 17 March 2017]

Photomedia Reader | Goddard, B. (2016) Photomedia Module Reader 2016 -2017. Bristol: Caron Neutral

Peres, R. (2013) The Focal Encyclopaedia of Photography. [Online] 4th ed. Burlington: Focal Press. [Accessed 15 March 2017]

Smith, M. (2014) Why are dolls so creepy?. Available from: [Accessed 17th March 2017]

Swindon Borough Council Civil Offices (2017) Steam: Museum of the Great Western Railway. Available from: [Accessed 17th March 2017]

The Art Story Foundation (2017) Cindy Sherman: American Photographer. Available from: [Accessed 8th March 2017]

Vergo, P., ed. (2000) New Museology [Online] Revised ed. London: Reaktion Books

Vella, L. (2011) Even Better Than The Real Thing. Thinking Practices [Blog]. 01 December. Available from: [Accessed 8th March 2017]

White Cube (2017) Jeff Wall. Available from: [Accessed 8th March 2017]

Yong, M. (2017) ‘Stay warm brave heart’: If you see a scarf around a lamp post next week this is what it’s for. Bristol Post. [Online] 20th February. Available from: [Accessed 25th February 2017]

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *